RG 003, New London County, County Court Papers by Subject, 1685-1856

RG 003, New London County, County Court Papers By Subject Inventory of Records


Overview of the Collection

Historical Note

Scope and Content


Index Terms

Related Material

Administrative Information

Container List

1. Admissions 1768-1855

2. Appointments of Officers 1781-1855

3. Confiscated Estates and Loyalists 1781-1782

4. Conservators and Guardians 1706-1845

5. Costs 1693-1855

6. Court Expenses 1700-1847

7. Executions 1700-1855

8. Inquests 1711-1840

9. Insolvents 1756, 1800

10. Jurors 1700-1855

11. Licenses 1702-1855

12. Meeting House 1730-1817

13. Militia 1709-1834

14. Miscellaneous 1685-1856

15. Partition of Lands 1745-1832

16. Pensions, Revolutionary War 1820-1853

17. Summons for Evidence 1700-1768

18. Travel 1698-1855

RG 003, New London County, County Court Papers By Subject

Inventory of Records

Finding aid prepared by Bruce P. Stark.

Copyright © 2008 by the Connecticut State Library

Overview of the Collection

Repository: Connecticut State Library
Creator: Connecticut. County Court (New London County)
Title: New London County, County Court papers by subject
Dates: 1685-1856
Quantity: 52 cubic feet
Abstract: Papers by Subject is an artificial collection consisting of materials removed from New London County Court Files series by State Library staff after the records were received from the New London court. Subjects include: Admissions to the Bar; Appointment of Officers; Confiscated Estates and Loyalists; Conservators and Guardians; Costs; Court Expenses; Executions; Inquests; Insolvents; Jurors; Licenses; Meeting House; Militia; Miscellaneous; Partition of Lands; Pensions, Revolutionary War; Summons for Evidence; Travel.
Identification: RG003_NLCC_PBS
Accession: 1921-029
Language: The records are in English.

Historical Note

The New London County. County Court. Papers by Subject Collection consists of materials that were removed from the original papers of the Court after the records were acquired by the Connecticut State Library in 1921, a procedure that is not consistent with modern archival principles.1

Materials moved from Files to Papers by Subject are often identified by cross-reference (x-refs) cards with the original Files, but not every subseries is identified by x-refs.2 Each x-ref includes the case name, court term at which the case was heard, the place to which the papers are removed, the original docket number, and a second number written in pencil to provide more precise identification of the item removed. The first pencil document number (1) appears on a June 1855 x-ref and the numbers increase as one goes back in time.3

1Records of the New London County Court are divided into four major series - Dockets, Trials, Files, and Papers by Subject. For more information on the history of county courts and these records, please see the finding aid for New London County. County Court. Files, 1691-1855.
2The major subseries identified by x-refs include, Admissions to the Bar, Appointment of Officers, Costs, Court Expenses, Indians, Licenses, Miscellaneous, Partition Lands, and Travel.
3The following numbers are used in June 1855: No. 1 - Indians; No. 2 - Travel; No. 3 - Admissions to the Bar; and No. 4 - Costs.

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Scope and Content

The records are arranged under eighteen headings or series, from Admissions to the Bar to Travel. The papers in most series are arranged in chronological order. Only a handful of documents exist for the period before 1700. Well over 99% of the papers date from the years between 1700 and 1855.

The first series is Admissions to the Bar (Box 1, folders 1-10). The applications stated that the person had received legal training and some were endorsed by lawyers who were already practicing before the New London County Court. The first such petition, dated June 23, 1768, urged the admission of Solomon Kellog and was signed by fifteen practicing attorneys, virtually the entire complement of regulars.4 The 1788 application of Roger Eells of Norwich included a letter of recommendation from Governor Samuel Huntington.5 The records contain a handful of admissions from prominent Connecticut political figures, like Roger Griswold, Henry M. Wait, Lafayette Foster, and John T. Wait. Admissions were also sometimes recorded in Trials, usually at the beginning of the records for court sessions.6

Series two consists of records of Appointment of Officers (Box 1, folders 11-20, Box 2, folders 1-9). An early document records a decision of the county court in November 1781 to separate the offices of clerk and treasurer, a consequence of an event "on the Sixth of Sep[tembe]r Last," whereby the "records, Files, Securities, and all Entries pertaining to the County Treasurer & Clerks Offices were Burnt & Consumed by Fire when the Enemy Burnt New London."7 The appointments and resignations cover such offices as county clerk, county treasurer, collectors of duties on imports, collectors of excise, jailer, inspector of fish, packer of beef and pork, sheriff and sheriff's deputy, state's attorney, and town surveyor.

The small one-folder Confiscated Estates and Loyalists series contains a small group of documents pertaining to James Rogers (New London) and Elisha Beckwith (Lyme).

Conservators and Guardians represent one of the more significant groupings of records in Papers by Subject. Filling around five boxes, these records are arranged alphabetically by surname of person who needed a conservator or guardian. Conservators or overseers were chosen to take care of mentally incompetent adults, while guardians were appointed over orphan children. Petitioners used several phrases to describe the condition of people requiring a conservator. The expressions included, "labouring under a state of mental derangement," "by age, sickness & bodily infirmity . . . now is impotent & unable to provide for himself," "impotent & insane," "Lunatic," "impotent and non compos mentis," "a State of Distraction," "naturally wanting in understanding," and other similar phrases.8 These memorials provide a good overview of the condition of those with mental impairments and how society dealt with them.

Selectmen or relatives submitted memorials to have guardians or overseers appointed over the mentally ill and distracted. Eight relatives of Mrs. Anne Johnson of Lyme submitted a memorial to the County Court on March 13, 1805. They stated that their father John Johnson died intestate leaving an estate worth £1,400, that the "widow Mrs. Anne Johnson hath by age & bodily infirmity become impotent in mind & understanding," and that her son John Johnson, heir to one-seventh of the estate, "from birth hath been a cripple & who hath always been naturally wanting in understanding & wholly incapable of providing for himself." They requested that conservators be appointed for Anne and John. The court appointed a conservator for son John but not for widow Anne.9 In two instances, the court appointed conservators over men who had been injured in the Revolutionary War. In the first case, John Perkins of Norwich asked the court to appoint a conservator over his son Dr. Abisha who had been captured by the British while on a privateering cruise and confined to jail for two years, "Dureing which time he was Exercised with a most Severe fit of Sickness and Indured almost Every other Hardship which the hand of Cruelty Could Inflict, by means whereof he was flung into the most Distressing Fitts" and had become "wholly unable to tak Care of him Self."10 In February 1785, Samuel Bishop of Norwich asked the county court to appoint an overseer for his son Nathaniel. An officer in the Army, Samuel due to "Hardship & misfortunes . . . his Debility is Such as Render him wholly uncapable of taking care of himself."11

Sometimes individuals petitioned to be released from the care of a conservator. Richard Atwell of New London unsuccessfully pleaded in 1782 to be released from the care of an overseer because "he is not reduced to want, nor likely to be reduced to want, by idleness, mismanagement or bad husbandry."12 In a second case, Thomas Halsey, a free Negro who had been manumitted in 1779 and possessed an estate worth $2,500, petitioned that "he hath always enjoyed the privileges of a Citizen in all Respects except the Right of Suffrage in the Town of Groton," but that in 1808 the selectmen "maliciously appointed" Philip Gray as his overseer and Gray was determined to take over control of the petitioner's property. The court granted his memorial.13

Only a small minority of the files consists of memorials for guardians of minor children. The 1709 case of Richard Ely, son of Richard Ely deceased, represents one of the more interesting. His widow Mary Starling petitioned to become guardian of her son in place of the youth's uncle Capt. William Ely. The widow claimed that William Ely was "unjustly indeavering to tacke away my Sone Richard Ely from me" and wanted to make certain that the boy's inheritance was preserved.15

Next comes around nineteen boxes of Costs. They lack the interest of several other subseries in Papers by Subject, but do provide some supplementary information to that found in Trials and Files. For example, in June 1705, John Arnold presented his bill for serving as attorney for defendant George Walker. The itemized bill asked for payment of £0-1-0 for bail bond, £0-1-0 for copying a writ, and £0-3-0 for three days' attendance at court.16 In 1719, Costs contain a list of fines and forfeitures due County Treasurer George Denison at the time of his death.16 The bill of Samuel Peck of Lyme against William Waller came a few years later and it included charges for making copies from Lyme town records, from proprietors' records, two deeds, and a survey.17 Costs for June 1742 include a sheriff's bill for £16 and king's attorney bill of £2.18

Although the overwhelming majority of costs included are those from individual lawsuits, other expenses are also found. They include bills of costs for laying out highways, for repair and upkeep on the Norwich and New London jails, for repair work on the courthouse, for cleaning, ringing bell, and starting fires at the courthouse, and for punch, flip, wine, and dinners for court officers. In addition, they hold jailer bills, fees for whipping delinquents, and beginning in 1839 a whole series of bills jailers submitted for the care of prisoners.19 Moreover, Costs also include a small scattering of other records, among them petitions, pleadings, presentments, and testimonies.

Court Expenses, encompassing a half box, are similar in character to Costs. They contain expenses of town constables, county officers, printing, court meals, and for transporting prisoners.

Executions comprise the largest and in some ways the most valuable series in Papers by Subject.20 Executions fill almost forty-six boxes of records from 1700 to 1855. The records are alphabetically arranged by groups of years, e.g. 1700-1720, 1721-1725, and 1750-1759 and arranged alphabetically by name of the winning party except in instances in which the colony or state successfully prosecutes in a criminal action. In such cases, the convicted party is interfiled with the names of winning parties. The county court issued writs of execution to the losing party in a court case to recover the debt, costs of suit, or fine levied. Sometimes the person upon whom the execution was served paid the money due, but often real property and/or personal property was seized and sold at auction to recover the debt. If the losing party lacked the means to pay the debt, he was generally jailed. In other instances, the debtor absconded and the plaintiff never recovered the amount that was owed. Although the series contains valuable documentation to supplement that found in Files, many court cases found in the former do not find any representation in Papers by Subject. They include lawsuits that were withdrawn, no appearance cases, and those in which fines were paid immediately upon conviction.

Land, livestock, household goods, and occasionally parts of dwellings were auctioned off to pay debts. To cite one example, when John Waterman, Jr. recovered judgment against Joseph Tracy in 1726 for £117-17-2 debt and costs of suit, the deputy sheriff, "By Vertue of this Execution" seized "one hundred and fourty Goats and fourteen Mares and yearlin Coults" and advertised for their sale.21 Nathaniel Beckwith of Lyme owed Samuel Bishop of New London £10-15. He refused to pay, offer any estate upon which to levy the execution, or to choose anyone to assist in appraising his estate, thus the creditor "Tenderd . . . a Certain Dwelling House . . . Being the Estate of the Said Debtor. The deputy sheriff chose two appraisers and they appraised "the West Room from Group Upwards with the Land it Stands on and the Privilege of ye Door yard and the One Half of the Chimney and the Entry Way" worth £11-13-8."22 On occasion, an extensive list of household goods was sold as in the case of David Lothrop and Joshua Lothrop v. Park Woodward. The creditors, Norwich merchants, recovered judgment against the Groton defendant for £24-12-6. The execution includes a three-page list of household goods sold, the price of each, and the party to whom each item was sold.23

The case of Christopher Denison v. Cyprian Sterry, both of Preston, provide a good example of the process of seizure of property by writ of execution and its disposition. In February 1754, constable Silas Park delivered an execution to Sterry.

"Then by Virtue of this Execution I Leveyed the Same on two Indian Boys tendered to me by the Within Christopher Denison as the Estate of ye within Named Cyprean Stery and Posted them to be Sold at the Sign Post in sd. Preston on the 27th Instant at the Beat of the Drum to the highest Bidder and on the 27th of February I Caused the Drum to Beat at the sd. Post and then Sold the Sd. Boys to the heist Bidder viz one to Ephraim Smith for £116-17-0 and the other to Christopher Tracey for £110-0-0."24

By the third decade of the nineteenth century, the nature of executions began to change, as they recorded criminal offenses and fines, jail time, and occasional whippings. In one such case, "Diana, alias Dinah, a woman of Colour" was convicted of theft, sent to the county jail, and whipped five stripes on the naked back.27 Crimes meriting jail time, either in the county facility or the state prisons at Newgate and Wethersfield, included arson, adultery, assault, attempted murder, attempted rape, bigamy, breaking and entering, burglary, fathering a bastard child, horse stealing, passing counterfeit money, and theft.

After imprisonment for debt was abolished for women in 1826 and for men under most circumstances in 1837, officers of the court sometimes were unsuccessful in levying writs of execution.26 In one case in 1846, constable Henry F. Bentley of North Stonington had to report his failure to serve the writ of execution for $5.36 on Spooner Crapo. "Then I received this Execution & Repaired to the Debtors place of abode & demand[ed] of him the amount of this Execution which he neglected and refused, whereupon I continued to search for goods & estate to satisfy the same until Jan. 9th 1847 when I return this Execution unto court wholly unsatisfied."27

Someone interested in studying debt in southeastern Connecticut in detail will find Executions extremely useful. One can track writs of execution by several categories - paid in cash, real property seized, personal property seized, defendant jailed, and defendant absconded - and changes over time. Impressionistic evidence indicates that the percentage of losing parties unable to pay their debts and either sent to jail or leaving for parts unknown increased immediately after the American Revolution.

The series for Indians has been separated from the rest of Papers by Subject. Demand for these records by parties of opposing sides in tribal recognition controversies and by those seeking to find their Native American roots has been so great that the originals have been restricted and, photocopies made available to researchers. These records are now treated as a distinct collection.

One folder of Inquests follows, as most inquests are located in Papers by Subject for the Superior Court, and then one folder of Insolvents.

Jurors, fills just over eight boxes, all of Boxes 73-80 and four folders of Box 81. The records are arranged alphabetically by town in two chronological sequences - 1700-1844 and 1845-1855. The records consist of summons for a specific number of jurors from each town to appear at the forthcoming session of the county court, together with a listing of the persons so designated.28 The first item in the subseries comes from the town of Bozrah, incorporated in May 1786 and hived off from Norwich. County Clerk Winthrop Saltonstall on November 3, 1787 summoned "One able and judicious Juryman a lawful Freeholder of said Town of Bozra[h] to attend the County Court to be holden at Norwich . . . Fourth Tuesday of November Instant."29 Each town kept a box containing the names of potential jurors and names were drawn out to fill the quota. The Bozrah constable noted that "This day I read the within writ in the hearing of Jesse Abel who was drawn out of the Box of Jurors." After the American Revolution, documentation also included mileage and payments for mileage for those selected.

The eleventh series in Papers by Subjects consists of Licenses, filling a little more than one box. Arranged alphabetically by surname and covering the period from 1702 to 1855, they consist of applications to the court for licenses in the "art & mistery of Tanning" leather. The applications were endorsed by selectmen, licensed tanners, or by a certification that the applicant had served an apprenticeship. These license applications provide useful data on relationships among tanners in New London County towns. To cite just one example, Daniel Miner of Lyme, the Separatist minister, applied for a tanning license in June 1759. Licensed tanners Abraham Perkins and Elijah Peck certified his application. Miner in turn subsequently endorsed the petitions of Lyme candidates George Lewis, Frederick Mather, George Read, and Elijah Peck, Jr. Tanning had the tendency to run in families. Over the course of some sixty years in the eighteenth century, six Gallups from Groton following the tanning trade - Ben Adam Gallup, Jr. (1737), Nathaniel Gallup (1741), Elisha Gallup (1750), Capt. Joseph Gallup (1750), Prentis Gallup (1768), and Lodowick Gallup (1796).

The Meeting House series (parts of Boxes 81-82) is small but contains much interesting material. The bulk of the records consist of papers concerning the building of meetinghouses by established Congregational churches. The documents include materials on New Chelsea, New Concord, and Newent societies in Norwich, together with a small group of papers on Chesterfield, a parish located in Colchester, Lyme, and New London that never had the resources to properly organize. One folder (Box 82, folder 2) consists of scattered materials on New London County Baptists, Rogerenes, and Separatists from 1730 to 1765.

The records contain one folder of Militia and the bulk of the papers concerns 1747 lawsuits instituted by King's Attorney Matthew Griswold against several men for failure to serve on the colony sloop Defence.

Almost two boxes of Miscellaneous follow. Subjects found in Miscellaneous include Common Fields, Court House, Fishing, Gaol/Jail, James Rogers and Samuel Beebe, Joan (a slave), Lottery, and Miscellaneous. Common Fields contains a 1749 petition of the proprietors of "Ely's Meadow or Six mile Island farm" in Lyme, Court House documents include materials on the building of a new court house in New London in 1784, while Gaol materials include a number of late 18th and 19th century petitions to extend prison bounds." One such 1807 document petitioned to extend the bounds of the Norwich prison "to include the Slaughter house & yard lately erected by Mr. Gardner Carpenter."30 Also included is material on an interesting 1715 case of horse theft, the complainant being Thomas Sanders of Poughkeepsie, New York and the defendants John Chadwick, John Tillitson, and David Tillitson of Lyme.31

Perhaps the most significant files in Miscellaneous are those of James Rogers and Samuel Beebe (Box 83, folders 1-2) and Joan (slave) (Box 83, folder 4). The papers in these three folders cover the period 1688-1718 and contain information on the ownership of Joan based upon the will of James Rogers and documentation on various lawsuits over her ownership. Additional material on Joan, wife of John Jackson, and their family is found in the finding aid to New London County African Americans Collection.

Miscellaneous also contains twelve folders of papers called Miscellaneous. They hold a variety of unrelated documents, among them a copy of 1685-86 New London town records regarding the hiring of a new minister, a 1725 letter of James Sterling complaining that shipwright John Jeffrey of Groton had not built his ship according to specifications, a 1764 Rogerene document giving the marriage oath used by the tiny sect, and an 1815 memorial from the selectmen of Norwich concerning the morals of children working in a cotton factory.32

The next series, Partition of Lands, fills four folders, and covers the period 1745-1832. Caused by disputes among estate heirs, they provide excellent genealogical data on the parties concerned. One such case is Jacob Sollard and his wife Sarah v. Joseph Rogers, Sarah Rogers single woman, Joshua Champion, Jr. as guardian to Jonathan Rogers and Ezekiel Rogers, Alice Rogers as guardian to Stephen Rogers, and Lucretia Rogers for the partition of land in Lyme.33 Partitions for the period up to 1745 are found in Files.

Pensions, Revolution War comprise series 16. In 1818, the Congress of the United States passed legislation to grant pensions to non-disabled veterans of the War of Independence. Subsequent 1820 legislation limited pension rights only to those living in poverty.34 This series contains 154 alphabetically arranged pension documents, about two dozen from minorities.35 Each pensioner had to submit a form describing his military service together with a report on his limited economic means. The form also included the pensioner's age, place of residence, and names of family members.

The documents do not contain much detail about military service, but some interesting pieces of information appear. Joseph Church served in 1776 under Capt. Nathan Hale, Phineas Hyde served on the Continental ship Confederacy under Capt. Seth Harding, Ezra Lee piloted Bushnell's submarine Turtle, and Thomas Pool was an officer in the regiment of light dragoons commanded by Col. Elisha Sheldon. The statement of Elijah Taylor of Colchester is typical. Taylor wrote that he was a laborer with a lame hand caused by the loss of two fingers and, "therefore cant obtain but small Wages." His wife Abigail was in poor health and daughter Sophia "wholly incapable of supporting herself. He owned no property except a "Small shell of a house built by the charity of my Neighbours." This entire estate was worth $16.25.36

Series 17, Summons for Evidence, fills the next six boxes.37 It covers the years between 1700 and 1768. Thereafter, Summons for Evidence materials are located in the records for Files. The information contained in Summons for Evidence supplements that found in Files, but only includes materials from adjudicated cases, not from defaults and those withdrawn. The first document summons James Springer and David Cullver to appear in June 1700 in Joseph Wells v. Theophilus Stanton, a dispute over the ownership of a colt.38 Another early summons is for William Stark and his son William in a case concerning breach of the Sabbath for fishing on Sunday.39 Although most summonses are routine, they sometimes provide useful tidbits of information. For example, the court summoned Thomas Jones of Colchester in February 1725 "to defend the Title to One hundred and twenty Acres of Land, which he sold to Robert Denison Junr . . March 6th 1721/2 which Land lyeth in New London North Parish and ye Title thereof will come in dispute between John Rowland and Jonathan Rogers, Plt., and Robert Denison, Defendt."40 In another instance, Samuel Fox of New London was summoned to provide a bill of sale for "A Negro woman . . . Named Marrian" and sold to Nathaniel Lothrop.41 Most summonses, however, merely required those named to appear and give evidence in a particular case. Other materials include bonds, depositions and court testimonies, jury verdicts, petitions, pleadings, and presentments, as Summons for Evidence served as a catchall for a variety of miscellaneous documents on court cases and researchers may well find information of interest.

The final series, Travel, fills Boxes 91-104 and contains materials on three subjects - highways, tavern licenses, and annual financial reports of three corporations. The largest quantity of papers in Travel concern the subjects of building, erecting or removing gates across, changing the routes of, repairing, or discontinuing highways. The county court dealt with petitions for roads built and maintained by towns, although public highways could traverse several towns, while the General Assembly had jurisdiction over turnpikes charging tolls.

The transportation of goods, services, and people along country roads, public highways, turnpikes, and on bodies of water like the Thames and Connecticut Rivers was a matter of great public importance and the county court devoted considerable attention to it. In addition, these documents provide much useful information on where people lived in relationship to one another. To cite one example, the county court heard a petition from James Harris in 1726 on the necessity of a country road between Lyme and Colchester to begin,

"Some where between ye Dwelling house of yr memorialist & ye Dwelling house of James harris Junr & from thnce through ye Lands of sd memorialist to Coll Browns farme on which mr Gallusia Lives . . . through ye Lands of ye sd Brown to New London Country Road which Goes from N: L: town to Capt. Latimers farme at ye Edge of New London bounds Westward . . ."42

The appointment of tavern keepers, innholders, or keepers of houses of public entertainment marked another responsibility of the county court. Tavern keepers were nominated at special meetings held on the first Monday in January of each year devoted exclusively to this duty. "At a Meeting of the Civil Authority, Selectmen, Constables, and Grandjurymen of the Town of Lyme . . . the following Persons were nominated to Keep Houses of Publick Entertainment . . . the Year Ensuing."43 The county court generally confirmed the nominees at their June session. Tavern keepers were often men of considerable importance in their communities during the eighteenth century, but in the first half of the nineteenth century their numbers declined, as did their status in their towns. By the 1830s, the court began to receive petitions and remonstrances from those opposing the liquor trade. One such remonstrance signed by fifty-six persons from the Jewett City section of Griswold asserted that "Griswold like many other towns . . . for some year past [has been] cursed with rum selling taverners of the very worst description who have done much directly or indirectly to disturb the peace and corrupt the morals of the community."44

The county court also received annual financial reports from three corporate entities. The first turnpike in New England and the second in the United States was the Mohegan Turnpike. Travel contains annual financial records for the turnpike for most of the years between 1792 and 1852, when the tollgate was abolished.45 The subseries contains financial accounts of the Niantic Bridge Company for about half of the period between 1797 and 1848 and those for the Norwich Channel Company, 1810-25.46

4Papers by Subject, Admissions to the Bar, Box 1, folder 1. Signers of the petition were Jedidiah Elderkin, George Richards, George Dorr, Samuel Huntington, Elisha Paine, John Elderkin, Richard Law, John Shipman, Samuel Holden Parsons, Elisha Fitch, Stephen Babcock, Benjamin Huntington, Nathaniel Minor, Marvin Wait, and William Coit. See page 12 for an image of this application.
5Ibid, Admissions to the Bar, Box 1, folder 2.
6See, for example, Trials, Vol. 24, Nov. 1763-Dec. 1768, June 1766 for William Coit (New London) and June 1768 for Solomon Kellog (Colchester).
7A reference to the British raid on New London and Groton led by Benedict Arnold. Ibid, Appointment of Officers, Box 1, folder 11. William Noyes of Lyme was appointed County Treasurer and Winthrop Saltonstall of New London retained his position as County Clerk.
8Additional cases are found scattered throughout Files.
9Papers by Subject, Conservators and Guardians, Johnson, Mrs. Anne, Box 5, folder 1.
10Ibid, Conservators and Guardians, Perkins, Dr. Abisha, Box 6, folder 5.
11Ibid, Conservators and Guardians, Bishop, Nathaniel, Box 2, folder 19.
12Ibid, Conservators and Guardians, Atwell, Richard, Box 2, folder 16.
13Ibid, Conservators and Guardians, Halsey, Thomas, Box 4, folder 11.
14Ibid, Conservators and Guardians, Ely, Richard, Box 4, folder 5.
15Ibid, Costs, June 1705, Box 7, folder 11.
16Ibid, Costs, Nov. 1719, Box 9, folder 4.
17Ibid, Costs, June 1732, Box 12, folder 20
18Ibid, Costs, June 1742, Box 16, folder 18
19These lists of prisoners and the expenses they incurred while in jail include the names of males and females, whites, Indians, and Negroes.
20An execution is the act or carrying out of a court order. Black's Law Dictionary, 8th ed., 609.
21Papers by Subject, Executions, John Waterman, Jr. v. Joseph Tracy, 1726, Box 29, folder 15.
22Ibid, Executions, Samuel Bishop v. Nathaniel Beckwith, 1763, Box 43, folder 16.
23Ibid, Executions, 1762, Box 45, folder 13.
24Ibid, Executions, 1754, Box 41, folder 12.
25Ibid, Executions, 1812, Box 61, folder 6.
26Jarvis Means Morse, A Neglected Period of Connecticut's History 1818-1850 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1933), 254-55.
27NLCC, Papers by Subject: Executions, 1846, Box 70, folder 2.
28For regulations concerning the choosing and summoning of jurors to serve as jury men at the county and superior courts, see, The Public Statute Laws of the State of Connecticut (Hartford: Printed by Hudson and Goodwin, 1808), 426-29.
29Papers by Subject, Jurors, Bozrah, Box 73, folder 1.
30Ibid, Miscellaneous, 1807, Box 82, folder 16.
31Ibid, Miscellaneous, Box 83, folder 13. Additional materials on this case are located in Summons for Evidence, Box 85, folders 13-15,
32Ibid, Miscellaneous, Box 83, folders 16, 18, 20, and 25.
33Ibid, Partition of Lands, 1749, Box 84, folder 2.
34Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications in the National Archives, Bicentennial Edition (Revised & Enlarged), (Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1976), x.
35A handful of additional pension applications can be found in the records of the New London Justice of the Peace and City Court and in Revolutionary War Pensions series of New London County, Superior Court, Papers by Subject.
36Papers by Subject, Pensions, Revolutionary War, Taylor, Elijah, Box 85, folder 5.
37The series also includes of related documents, like occasional correspondence, depositions, jury verdicts, petitions, pleadings, presentments, and testimonies.
38Papers by Subject, Summons for Evidence, 1700, Box 85, folder 8.
39Ibid, 1718, Summons for Evidence, Box 85, folder 16.
40Ibid, 1725, Summons for Evidence, Box 86, folder 8.
41Ibid, 1728, Summons for Evidence, Box 86, folder 17.
42Ibid, Travel, 1726, Box 91, folder 17.
43Ibid, Travel, 1753 Jun, Box 92, folder 25.
44Ibid, Travel, 1844 Feb, Box 103, folder 5.
45Frederic J. Wood, The Turnpikes of New England (Boston: Marshal Jones Company, 1919), 334-35.
46Also included is one March 1820 financial statement from the Stonington Bridge Lottery. Papers by Subject, Travel, Box 99, folder 10.

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Restrictions on Access

All records in Papers by Subject are freely accessible to researchers. As with Files, however, all original documents relating to African Americans and Native Americans have been removed and photocopied. One photocopy has been inserted in Papers by Subject at the location of the original and the second copy has been placed in the New London County African Americans Collection or New London County Native Americans Collection.

See the Rules and Procedures for Researchers Using Archival Records and Secured Collections policy.

Restrictions on Use

See the Reproduction and Publications of State Library Collections policy.

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Related Material

As indicated earlier, Papers by Subjects consists of materials divided among eighteen subjects removed from Trials after the Connecticut State Library acquired these records in 1921. In some instances, like Admissions to the Bar, Conservators and Guardians, Jurors, Licenses, Pensions, Revolutionary War, and Travel, these divisions expedite research, but for such subjects as Costs, Executions, and Summons for Evidence these removals inhibit research by separating materials that belong together.

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Index Terms


Connecticut. County Court (New London County)


Connecticut -- History -- Sources
Connecticut. County Court (New London County) -- History
Connecticut. Judicial Dept. -- History
County courts -- Connecticut -- New London County -- History

Document Types:

Civil court records
Criminal Court records
Judicial records

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Administrative Information


Papers by Subject came to the Connecticut State Library in 1921 with the rest of the records of the New London County Court, 1666-1855.

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Container List

1. Admissions, 1768-1855
Box Folder
Admissions 1 1-10
2. Appointments of Officers, 1781-1855
1781 - 1825 1 11-20
1826 - 1855 2 1-9
3. Confiscated Estates and Loyalists, 1781-1782
Confiscated Estates 2 10
4. Conservators and Guardians, 1706-1845
Allyn - Bolles 2 11-19
Breed - Cushing 3 1-22
Davis - Jerome 4 1-19
Johnson - Mott 5 1-18
Niles - Tyler 6 1-18
Walbridge - Young 7 1-7
5. Costs, 1693-1855
1693 - 1712 November 7 8-21
1713 June - 1718 November 8 1-19
1719 June - 1722 November 9 1-19
1723 February - 1725 November 10 1-20
1726 February - 1729 November 11 1-20
1730 February - 1732 November 12 1-23
1733 February - 1735 November 13 1-22
1736 June - 1738 February 14 1-27
1738 February - 1739 November 15 1-20
1740 February - 1742 November 16 1-20
1743 February - 1748 November 17 1-19
1749 February - 1752 November 18 1-17
1753 February - 1757 November 19 1-20
1758 February - 1761 November 20 1-17
1762 February - 1763 November 21 1-15
1764 February - 1766 November 22 1-19
1767 February - 1770 November 23 1-18
1771 February - 1812 24 1-20
1813 - 1838 25 1-20
1838 - 1855, undated 26 1-10
6. Court Expenses, 1700-1847
Expenses 26 11-23
7. Executions, 1700-1855
1700 - 1720 27
A - O 1-18
P - Y 28 1-10
1721 - 1725
A - F 11-18
G - Y 29 1-17
1726 - 1729
A 18-19
B - L 30 1-19
M - W 31 1-17
1730 - 1734
A - B 18-20
C - P 32 1-20
O - W 33 1-14
1735 - 1739
A 15-17
B - F 34 1-20
G - M 35 1-20
N - V 36 1-18
W - Y 37 1-4
1740 - 1744
A - F 5-20
G - O 38 1-19
P - Y 39 1-20
1745 - 1749
A - Y 40 1-19
1750 - 1759
A - G 41 1-18
H - S 42 1-22
T - Y 43 1-7
1760 - 1764
A - B 8-19
C - G 44 1-21
H - M 45 1-21
N - Y 46 1-30
1765 - 1773
A - D 47 1-20
E - L 48 1-21
M - R 49 1-21
S - Y 50 1-15
1781 - 1789
A 16-18
B - D 51 1-22
E - J 52 1-20
K - O 53 1-18
P - T 54 1-22
U - Y 55 1-12
1790 - 1799
A - C 13-22
D - M 56 1-20
N - W 57 1-14
1800 - 1810
A - B 15-22
C - J 58 1-20
K - S 59 1-19
T - Y 60 1-9
1811 - 1820
A - B 10-18
C - K 61 1-18
L - V 62 1-18
W - Y 63 1-7
1820 - 1829
A - C 8-20
D - M 64 1-21
N - W 65 1-20
1830 - 1839
A - Fa 66 1-18
Fe - Ma 67 1-17
Me - Wa 68 1-18
We - Y 69 1-7
1840 - 1850
A - D 8-19
E - Me 70 1-20
Mi - Tha 71 1-20
Tho - Y 72 1-7
1851 - 1855
A - W 8-18
8. Inquests, 1711-1840
Inquests 72 19
9. Insolvents, 1756, 1800
Insolvents 72 20
10. Jurors, 1700-1855
Bozrah, 1787 - 1844 73 1-6
Canterbury, 1714, 1716 7
Colchester, 1784 - 1844 8-13
East Lyme, 1840 - 1844 14
Franklin, 1787 - 1844 15-21
Griswold, 1816 - 1844 22-24
1711 - 1735 25-26
1736 - 1844 74 1-10
Killingly, 1714 11
Killingworth, 1714, 1745 - 1785 11
Lebanon, 1714 - 1720, 1824 - 1844 12-13
Ledyard, 1837 - 1844 14
Lisbon, 1787 - 1844 15-18
1713 - 1735 19-20
1736 - 1844 75 1-10
Montville, 1787 - 1844 11-15
New London
1700 - 1799 16-21
1800 - 1844 76 1-4
New London County, 1704 - 1855 5-18
North Stonington
1807 - 1830 19-20
1831 - 1844 77 1-2
Norwich, 1700 - 1844 3-14
Plainfield, 1714 - 1717 15
Pomfret, 1714 15
1714 - 1800 16-20
1801 - 1844 78 1-4
Salem, 1820 - 1844 5-7
Saybrook, 1700 - 1785 8-11
1700 - 1809 12-20
1810 - 1844 79 1-3
Waterford, 1802 - 1844 4-7
Bozrah, 1845 - 1855 8
Colchester, 1845 - 1855 9
East Lyme, 1845 - 1855 10
Franklin, 1845 - 1855 11
Griswold, 1845 - 1855 12
Groton, 1845 - 1855 13
Lebanon, 1845 - 1855 14
Ledyard, 1845 - 1855 15
Lisbon, 1845 - 1855 16
Lyme, 1845 - 1855 17
Montville, 1845 - 1855 18
New London, 1845 - 1855 19
North Stonington, 1845 - 1855 20
Norwich, 1845 - 1855 21
Preston, 1845 - 1855 80 1
Salem, 1845 - 1855 2
Stonington, 1845 - 1855 3
Waterford, 1845 - 1855 4
11. Licenses, 1702-1855
A - Le 80 5-21
Lo - Y 81 1-14
12. Meeting House, 1730-1817
Chelsea/New Chelsea (Norwich), 1759 - 1794 81 15
Chesterfield, 1770 - 1773 16
Groton, 1761 - 1767 17
First Society, 1764, 1815 18
Third Society, 1813 18
New Concord (Norwich), 1770, 1773 19
Newent (Norwich), 1759 - 1771 20
New London, North Parish, 1770 - 1772 20
North Stonington, 1817 20
First Society, 1801 20
West Society, 1749 20
First Society, 1805 82 1
North Society, 1767 - 1768 1
Salem/New Salem, 1789 1
Dissenters, 1730 - 1765 2
13. Militia, 1709-1834
Militia 82 3
14. Miscellaneous, 1685-1856
Burying Ground Stonington, 1849 - 1850 82 4
Common Fields, 1713 - 1749 5
Counterfeiter's Oath, 1811 6
Counterfeit bill of credit from Massachusetts, undated 6
County Court, 1741 - 1836 7
Court House, 1724 - 1811 8
Court of Common Pleas, Writs of Attachment, 1787 - 1789 9
Estate Papers, 1699 - 1711 10
Fishing, 1719 - 1763 11-12
Gaol/Jail, 1715 - 1836 13-19
James Rogers and Samuel Beebe, 1688 - 1711 83 1-2
Joseph Rogers, estate of, 1700 - 1706 3
Joan (Slave), 1711 - 1718 4
James Rogers and Collins and William Gorton, 1776 - 1778 5
Kirby, John, estate of, 1705 - 1707 6-8
Lottery, 1810 - 1811 9
Newport Mercury, 1764 January 2 10
Power of Attorney, 1706, 1741 11
Resolution on deaths, 1845 12
Sanders v. Chadwick and Tillitson, 1715 13
Schedules of court cases, 1737 - 1774 14
Verdicts and court dockets, 1832 - 1833 15
Miscellaneous, 1685 - 1856, undated 16-27
15. Partition of Lands, 1745-1832
Partition of lands 84 1-4
16. Pensions, Revolutionary War, 1820-1853
A - P 84 5-20
Q - W 85 1-7
17. Summons for Evidence, 1700-1768
1700 - 1722 85 8-21
1722 - 1730 86 1-21
1731 - 1739 87 1-22
1740 - 1749 88 1-22
1750 - 1757 89 1-21
1758 - 1765 90 1-21
1766 - 1768 91 1-6
18. Travel, 1698-1855
1698 - 1729 91 7-20
1730 - 1753 February 92 1-25
1753 February - 1766 93 1-24
1767 - 1774 June 94 1-26
1774 June - 1798 June 95 1-22
1798 December - 1805 June 96 1-22
1805 June - 1811 June 97 1-24
1811 December - 1817 98 1-21
1818 - 1823 March 99 1-23
1823 June - 1829 March 100 1-23
1829 June - 1834 101 1-22
1835 - 1842 June 102 1-24
1842 November - 1852 February 103 1-23
1852 June - 1855 June 104 1-9